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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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In 1947, India had just Rs 1500 crore cash. Today, we are about to cross $500 billion in foreign reserves. We have come a long way

In 1947, when India got independence, we had just Rs 1500 crore in cash with us, and even paying Rs 55 crore to Pakistan was a big deal. Mahatma Gandhi had to keep a day's fast to convince Vallabhbhai Patel to transfer Rs 55 crore to Pakistan.
Then we started storing foreign reserves to the calamity and emergency.
In 1960, India had foreign reserves of $1.46 billion, which could have lasted just 8 weeks of import.
In 1980, India had foreign reserves of $7 billion
In 1991, India's foreign reserves dipped to an alarming level of just $1.2 billion, which could have lasted just 3 weeks of imports. RBI had to pledge 46.91 tonnes of gold with the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan, and raised $400 million to deal with the unprecedented crisis
In 2004, for the first time, we achieved foreign reserves of $100 billion
Due to solid performance of our foreign reserves, we somehow navigated the recession of 2009, and our foreign reserves stood at $270 billion
And now, for the first time in our history, India will have $500 billion of foreign reserves. As of now, we have $493 billion, which is enough to sustain 17 months of imports.
We are right now world's 3rd biggest nation with foreign reserves, after China and Japan.
India has indeed come a long way from having just Rs 1500 crore in cash to pledging Gold to sustain the economy, to crossing half a trillion-dollar of foreign reserves.
Sources: 1 2 3 4 5
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Emerging markets: Premature rally

BNP Paribas






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Since I angered some Chads on /r/investing here's why I think China is the next "big short".

Fellow idiots,
I posted this comment which seems to have angered the highly sophisticated /investing community. I don't mind being downvoted but at least provide some counter arguments if you're going to be a dick. So in the pursuit of truth and tendies for all, I have prepared some juicy due diligence (DD) for WSB Capital on why China is on the verge of collapse.
TL;DR at the bottom.
Point 1: Defaults in China have been accelerating aggressively, and through July 2019, 274 real estate developers filed for bankruptcy, up 50% over last year. A bonus? Many Chinese state controlled banks have been filing for bankruptcy as well. Just google "china bank defaults" or something similar. Notice how many articles there are from 2019? When the banking system fails, everything else usually fails too.
Point 2: The RMB has depreciated significantly. Last time this happened, in 2015-2016, there was a significant outflow of foreign invested capital. According to the IIF, outflows reached $725bn due to the currency depreciation.. This time is different why again? I have heard some arguments why there will be less outflow this time, but I struggle to buy them.
Point 3: Despite wanting to operate like a developed economy, China still has not been able to shrug off the middle income trap. Their GDP per capita is comparable to countries we normally associated with being developing/emerging markets. Tangentially related to point 10.
Point 4: China is an export-dependent economy, with about 20% of their exports contributing towards their GDP. Less exporting means less GDP, less consumption (because businesses make less money, they pay people less, who in turn spend less), which has a greater effect on GDP than any declines in exports would have at face value. Guess what? Chinese exports dropped 1% in August, and August imports dropped -1%, marking the 5th month this year of negative m/m export growth..
Point 5: Business confidence has been weak in China - declining at a sustained pace worse than in 2015. When businesses feel worse, they spend less, invest less in fixed assets, hire less until they feel better about the future. Which takes me to my next point.
Point 6: Fixed asset investment in China has declined 30 percentage points since 2010. While rates are low, confidence is also low, and they are sitting on a record amount of leverage, which means they simply will not be able to afford additional investment.
Point 7: They are an extremely levered economy with a total debt to GDP ratio of over 300%, per the IIF, which also accounts for roughly 15% of global total fucking debt. Here's an interview with someone else talking about it too.
Point 8: Their central bank recently introduced a metric fuckton of stimulus into their economy. This will encourage more borrowing....add fuel to the fire. Moreover, the stimulus will mechanically likely weaken the RMB even more, which could lead to even more foreign outflows, which are already happening, see next point.
Point 9: Fucking LOTS of outflows this year. As of MAY, according to this joint statement, around 40% of US companies are relocating some portion of their supply chains away from mainland. This was in May. Since May, we have seen even more tariffs imposed, why WOULD companies want to stay when exporting to the US is a lot more expensive now?
Point 10: Ignoring ALL of the points above, we are in a global synchronized slowdown, with many emerging market central banks cutting rates - by the most in a decade. Investors want safety, and safe-haven denominated assets are where we have seen a lot of flocking into recently. Things that can be considered safe-havens have good liquidity, a relatively stable economy, and a predictable political environment.
Would love to hear opposing thoughts if you think China is a good buy. I am not against China, nor any other country for that matter, but I am against losing money (yes, wrong sub etc.), and I can not rationalize why anyone would be putting in a bid.
TL;DR: the bubble is right in front of your face, impending doom ahead, short everything, fuck /investing.
Edit, since you 'tards keep asking me how to trade this, there are a few trades that come to mind:
*not investment advice*
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13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost

13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost

https://preview.redd.it/fx11dz312u041.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bf4535866826b05ac61e65dbbfff5a84a435a1b5
“Only 30-35% of couples going for IVF get successful in their journey but with the right approach and expertise the success rate can be increased upto two folds”– Dr. Neha Jain The field of IVF has seen tremendous growth in the past few years. India is one of the countries which has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of infertility treatments. According to NARI (National ART Registry of India) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the infertility number has increased significantly. The success rate of the treatment is associated with the age, lifestyle, genetic factors of the conceiving mother and many other factors. According to the CDC (Centre for Disease Control), the success rate varies from 35 to 38 percent.. Lower rates are observed with patients of higher age bracket. One of the factors impacting success is stress. The knowledge and acceptance of infertility take a toll on the couple's mental health. Like any other medical procedure, maintaining the proper health of the couples involved is inevitable to obtain expected results in IVF. It is crucial especially for the mothers conceiving through IVF. The health care should begin as soon as you decide to choose the assisted reproductive technology to get pregnant. Let us discuss measures to increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment and minimize your billing while you are going through the most crucial phase of your life. This blog aims to introduce ways to minimize the treatment costs, reduce stress and maximize the chances of a safe and successful procedure.
So, let’s take a look at How to Increase Your Chances of IVF Success and minimize your IVF cost
Feel free to skip ahead if one topic catches your eye:
  1. Do your homework
  2. Don’t wait until it’s too late
  3. Nutrition and weight balance
  4. Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D
  5. Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
  6. Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
  7. Egg donation program
  8. Travel for IVF
  9. Check your insurance
  10. How Can You Pay for IVF?
  11. Smoking and Alcohol
  12. Relaxation
  13. Acupuncture
https://preview.redd.it/x336tfab2u041.jpg?width=658&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fd03ebf60f7994cf50dc7268e5197f86b014d7a6
Do your homework-Find the right fertility clinic for you Ask about the certifications of the doctor and the labs you are planning on getting your IVF done at,look for an IVF center that is being run by a team of experts and not by an individual practitioner.Individually run IVF centers lack transparency and well defined standard operating protocols”-Dr. Shilpa Gupta IVF is an expensive treatment that is demanding both financially and emotionally. You cannot compromise with the quality of treatment which majorly depends on the clinic’s facilities and success rate and the doctor who is going to treat you. Make extensive research for selecting the best doctor and clinic for the treatment Ask about the certification of the doctors and accreditation of the labs,look for the best IVF center near you that is being run by a team of expert rather than an individual. Individually run centers lack transparency and well defined functioning work protocols
The center should have a 24X7 available working staff especially a Doctor and an Embryologist, you may come across centers who do not have a full time available staff,The Doctors and Embryologist are available only on call as per requirement which leads to poorly managed operation theater and infrastructure
Ask for the expertise of doctors and ensure that the doctor has high conversion rates in IVF and area expertise in the particular field of IVF.Discuss their experience with the women of your age and similar medical and health conditions
The center should be well equipped with world class advanced technology,The field of IVF is advancing every day which is ensuring better success rate of the procedure The center should have a protocol to treat each case individually,It has been observed that many IVF center combine many IVF cases all together and perform IVF on all of them at once which results into poor results of all cases,Every case is unique and it needs to be treated individually Evaluating the best IVF center near you is the first step towards successful parenthood
https://reddit.com/link/e1g0mh/video/e113vypj2u041/player
Don’t wait until it’s too late " The best age for women for a successful IVF treatment is between 20 and 35 years – Dr.Neha Jain
Does my age is going to affect the success of IVF? Well! Yes, it does. Your chances of conceiving and giving birth to a child are closely linked with your age in both natural and IVF pregnancies.The ability to conceive begins to decline at approximately 28 years of age. This has a direct impact on the success of IVF treatment. Aging deteriorates the quality and quantity of eggs which reduces the chances of successful treatment. The data from the Society of assisted reproductive technology (SART) suggests that the chances of live birth in women under 35 are around 47 percent while for women between 80 and 40, it is 38 percent. For the above-mentioned reasons, it is advised to consult the best IVF doctor as soon as you decide to conceive through IVF and your doctor clears you for the procedure.
Nutrition and weight balance
Taking proper nutrition and maintaining a healthy body weight is essential not only during the treatment but also during the preparation. You should begin self-care a couple of months before the embryo transfer. Your doctor will guide you about the diet. There are also fertility diet programs that improve the health of your reproductive organs and promote the success of the treatments. A balanced diet and adequate nutrition also help in the supply of good quality blood to the uterus. This provides better nutrition to the embryo and helps in its growth. Your male partner should also take up a specific diet to improve the quality and quantity of the sperms. Also, healthy body weight is a boon to the IVF treatment. While being right weight increases the time of conception, excess weight increases the chances of complications and makes monitoring more difficult.To know more about it, it's recommended to talk to an IVF expert.
Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D About forty percent of individuals are deficient in Vitamin D, and there are upcoming data on its relation with infertility and poor IVF outcomes.Most commonly vitamin D is produced when your skin is exposed to sunlight. For that reason, most women who are from colder regions or who stay indoors are mostly vitamin D deficiency. Many studies and theories have linked vitamin D with the success of IVF treatment. A woman with vitamin D deficiency is more likely to face pregnancy-induced hypertension, lower birth weight, and gestational diabetes. Ensure that you take ample sunlight and strive for food like fatty fish (tuna, mackerel, salmon), egg yolk, cheese, and other vitamin D fortified food like orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, etc.
Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
Along with a balanced diet, supplements are also important for the success of IVF treatment. Supplements are a must for both female and male partners. Women need supplements for vitamins A, B, C, and E. Zinc, magnesium, iron, and folic acid provide great help in fertilization and implant processes. These also help in preventing neural tube defects. Women should also take enough fatty acids to keep FSH under control and provide nourishment for eggs. Men should also take antioxidants with these vitamins and supplements. These reduce the chances of sperm damage and ensure normal sperm production, sperm count and motility. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood flow and increases the chances of fertilization.
Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
"Malefactor influence nearly two-third of infertility cases.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh
Many a time people misunderstood the IVF treatment as a procedure that is done with the female partner only. However, the contribution of the male partner is vital. Almost two-thirds of the couples who choose IVF could not normally conceive due to male infertility. Common problems related to sperm production are about the quantity, movement, and shape. These problems arise usually due to excess of alcohol, tobacco or other drugs, high temperature in a hot bath, and excessive workout. Men should also take a healthy and balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants. Your doctors may also prescribe supplements for your male partner. Maintaining a healthy body weight is also important for treatment. You should do moderate exercise regularly. You should undertake the semen analysis before going for the IVF treatment. This would help you and your doctor to identify and understand the cause of male infertility and take the necessary steps to address these issues and obtain a successful outcome of the treatment.You can get an infertility examination to know where you stand on your fertility journey.
Egg donation program
“Egg donation can increase the chances of success of IVF treatment by more than 42 percent.” – Dr. Shilpa Gupta
Egg donation programs are a boon to the parents who want to take up IVF treatment but are constrained by the budget.The process involves taking high quality fertile and healthy eggs from a female done of age between 21 to 29 years, The donors have to go through a well defined and strict screening process to ensure that the practice gives fruitful results.The donor needs to have a healthy lifestyle,good educational background,right weight and height ratios and willing to undergo all medical and background screening processes.It needs to be ensured that the center you are availing the egg donation program follows guidelines provided by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) . Egg received from the young female are fertilized with the sperm of the husband and the resulting embryo is then transferred to the womb of the recipient women
Travel for IVF
“The overall cost of the treatment in India including travel cost is nearly one third of the treatment costs in other countries.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh
Should I travel to a different country for IVF treatment? If you are looking for excellent treatment at the minimum possible cost, you should. The cost of IVF treatment is high and is extremely subjective. It depends on your age, fertility history, duration of the marriage and the location. Different countries offer treatment at greatly varying prices. The cost of the treatment in the US is $19,200 whereas it is much lower in other countries. In Malaysia, it is $4,500 and in Thailand, it is $7500. Cost of IVF treatment in India is just ₹51000 which approximately $700,you can get the world-class treatment done. Lesser cost does not always mean poor quality. This variation in cost is based on the cost of living in the country and the burden on the doctors. You also get world-class facilities and internationally trained doctors supporting you 24/7. Clinics also provide support for the visa, travel, and Forex exchange. We provide high-quality treatment with excellent success-rate at the most reasonable pricing.
https://preview.redd.it/kj92q2or2u041.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6f7c51e7711418192334a31b002ce2011fc853cd
Check your insurance
Fertility treatments are not considered medically necessary so insurance companies and they do not usually cover them. But if you have a certain condition like endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, etc. that cause infertility, you may be able to get the insurance to pay for the treatment.
If you are still unable to get your insurance to cover it, see if your company offers some kind of employee benefit that allows you to use part of your pre-taxed income for medical uses that insurance provider won’t cover.
How to pay for IVF procedures
Among the top 10 IVF centers in Delhi Baby Joy IVF clinic allows you to pay through various payment options. You can make the payment online which speeds up and simplifies the procedure. We also allow you to pay in installments. Our costing and payment are highly transparent. We provide “World-class Yet Economical” IVF Fertility Treatment in Delhi.
Additional Offers Only for This Week on Cost of IVF in Delhi at Baby Joy
  • Spl. Discounted IVF Packages.
  • Easy EMIs available; Payment can be made in parts.
  • Register nw to avail cheap IVF Price, IVF Cost in Delhi & Start treatment later.
  • Your age, years of marriage & fertility history will help us guide you better on overall IVF Cost, Cost of IVF.
  • No Hidden Charges; No Expensive Tests; Transparent IVF Pricing.
  • Customized Packages available.
  • Money Back Guarantee
https://reddit.com/link/e1g0mh/video/6ojc83vx2u041/player
Smoking and Alcohol detox
Both smoking and alcohol reduce the success rate of IVF treatment. Smoking in men can lead to low sperm count and poor sperm quality causing miscarriage. Women can also face miscarriage due to smoking as it ages the eggs and depletes the uterus lining. Taking alcohol more than ten units a week also decreases the chances of successful IVF treatment.
Relaxation
Many studies have proved that stress adversely affects the results of IVF treatment. It messes up with your cycle timing and can reduce sperm count in males. Cortisol and other hormones secreted due to stress interfere with the implantation process. It may also lead to miscarriage. You can opt for activities like light yoga, meditation, spa, etc for relaxation. You should talk to your doctor and your partner about your apprehensions. Consult a professional counselor if needed.
Acupuncture
Acupuncture is a science that treats various health conditions by putting tiny needles precisely in your body. Presently it is one of the most preferred alternative treatments. Acupuncture is highly effective in managing stress. It enhances the blood flow to the reproductive organs and improves their function. Taking acupuncture sessions for three months before the embryo transfer can dramatically increase the chances of successful treatment.
All the couples who are commencing their journey of IVF may initially find it challenging and demanding. Although it is not completely untrue, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic like the baby joy IVF can make it safe and smooth. Our doctors compassionately discuss the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. We provide personalized care to all our patients and provide them both medical and psychological support.
Best wishes from Baby Joy If you are commencing their journey of IVF and find it challenging and demanding, you are not alone. Although the fear is not completely unjustified, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic can make it safe and smooth. Find the best IVF doctor who compassionately discusses the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. Personalized care and world-class medical and psychological support can ensure your success through the journey of IVF.
We understand, there cannot be a stronger human emotion than the desire ‘to have Your Little One!’ “Baby Joy” is our endeavour to be part of your journey towards parenthood.
It is our VISION to set benchmarks in the field of Fertility management globally, through cutting edge technology, most advanced treatment protocols, & a highly acclaimed team of doctors, embryologists & support staff.
It is our MISSION to achieve high success rates at lowest cost, through highly customised fertility care, internationally accepted protocols & best global practices. We strongly believe in bringing transparency & honesty to Fertility care in India. We carry out egg donation & surrogacy through our sister concern WSC. This makes Baby Joy a comprehensive Fertility Centre providing 360 degree fertility solutions under 1 roof. We are one of the few recognised professionally run healthcare centres in India. Baby Joy offers comprehensive Infertility, Surrogacy and Test Tube Baby Solutions in India
At Baby Joy, we strive to ‘touch your lives’ by helping you ‘create life!’
Hoping to transform your dreams into reality, your desires into accomplishments & your Hope into Joy !
Source URL:- https://www.babyjoyivf.com/13-ways-to-maximise-your-ivf-success-minimise-your-ivf-cost/
submitted by babyjoy1 to u/babyjoy1 [link] [comments]

13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost

13 Ways to Maximise your IVF Success & Minimise your IVF Cost
“Only 30-35% of couples going for IVF get successful in their journey but with the right approach and expertise the success rate can be increased upto two folds”– Dr. Neha Jain The field of IVF has seen tremendous growth in the past few years. India is one of the countries which has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of infertility treatments. According to NARI (National ART Registry of India) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the infertility number has increased significantly. The success rate of the treatment is associated with the age, lifestyle, genetic factors of the conceiving mother and many other factors. According to the CDC (Centre for Disease Control), the success rate varies from 35 to 38 percent.. Lower rates are observed with patients of higher age bracket. One of the factors impacting success is stress. The knowledge and acceptance of infertility take a toll on the couple's mental health. Like any other medical procedure, maintaining the proper health of the couples involved is inevitable to obtain expected results in IVF. It is crucial especially for the mothers conceiving through IVF. The health care should begin as soon as you decide to choose the assisted reproductive technology to get pregnant. Let us discuss measures to increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment and minimize your billing while you are going through the most crucial phase of your life. This blog aims to introduce ways to minimize the treatment costs, reduce stress and maximize the chances of a safe and successful procedure.
ivf clinic in delhi
So, let’s take a look at How to Increase Your Chances of IVF Success and minimize your IVF cost
Feel free to skip ahead if one topic catches your eye:
  1. Do your homework
  2. Don’t wait until it’s too late
  3. Nutrition and weight balance
  4. Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D
  5. Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
  6. Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
  7. Egg donation program
  8. Travel for IVF
  9. Check your insurance
  10. How Can You Pay for IVF?
  11. Smoking and Alcohol
  12. Relaxation
  13. Acupuncture


https://preview.redd.it/szlz45fdeu041.jpg?width=658&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f44481182f0376e1d2353e1fed601d0ab3182015
Do your homework-Find the right fertility clinic for you Ask about the certifications of the doctor and the labs you are planning on getting your IVF done at,look for an IVF center that is being run by a team of experts and not by an individual practitioner.Individually run IVF centers lack transparency and well defined standard operating protocols”-Dr. Shilpa Gupta IVF is an expensive treatment that is demanding both financially and emotionally. You cannot compromise with the quality of treatment which majorly depends on the clinic’s facilities and success rate and the doctor who is going to treat you. Make extensive research for selecting the best doctor and clinic for the treatment Ask about the certification of the doctors and accreditation of the labs,look for the best IVF center near you that is being run by a team of expert rather than an individual. Individually run centers lack transparency and well defined functioning work protocols
The center should have a 24X7 available working staff especially a Doctor and an Embryologist, you may come across centers who do not have a full time available staff,The Doctors and Embryologist are available only on call as per requirement which leads to poorly managed operation theater and infrastructure
Ask for the expertise of doctors and ensure that the doctor has high conversion rates in IVF and area expertise in the particular field of IVF.Discuss their experience with the women of your age and similar medical and health conditions
The center should be well equipped with world class advanced technology,The field of IVF is advancing every day which is ensuring better success rate of the procedure The center should have a protocol to treat each case individually,It has been observed that many IVF center combine many IVF cases all together and perform IVF on all of them at once which results into poor results of all cases,Every case is unique and it needs to be treated individually Evaluating the best IVF center near you is the first step towards successful parenthood
Watch - 5 Most important things to consider while selecting an IVF centre
Don’t wait until it’s too late " The best age for women for a successful IVF treatment is between 20 and 35 years – Dr.Neha Jain
Does my age is going to affect the success of IVF? Well! Yes, it does. Your chances of conceiving and giving birth to a child are closely linked with your age in both natural and IVF pregnancies.The ability to conceive begins to decline at approximately 28 years of age. This has a direct impact on the success of IVF treatment. Aging deteriorates the quality and quantity of eggs which reduces the chances of successful treatment. The data from the Society of assisted reproductive technology (SART) suggests that the chances of live birth in women under 35 are around 47 percent while for women between 80 and 40, it is 38 percent. For the above-mentioned reasons, it is advised to consult the best IVF doctor as soon as you decide to conceive through IVF and your doctor clears you for the procedure.
Nutrition and weight balance
Taking proper nutrition and maintaining a healthy body weight is essential not only during the treatment but also during the preparation. You should begin self-care a couple of months before the embryo transfer. Your doctor will guide you about the diet. There are also fertility diet programs that improve the health of your reproductive organs and promote the success of the treatments. A balanced diet and adequate nutrition also help in the supply of good quality blood to the uterus. This provides better nutrition to the embryo and helps in its growth. Your male partner should also take up a specific diet to improve the quality and quantity of the sperms. Also, healthy body weight is a boon to the IVF treatment. While being right weight increases the time of conception, excess weight increases the chances of complications and makes monitoring more difficult.To know more about it, it's recommended to talk to an IVF expert.
Ensure you have adequate levels of vitamin D About forty percent of individuals are deficient in Vitamin D, and there are upcoming data on its relation with infertility and poor IVF outcomes.Most commonly vitamin D is produced when your skin is exposed to sunlight. For that reason, most women who are from colder regions or who stay indoors are mostly vitamin D deficiency. Many studies and theories have linked vitamin D with the success of IVF treatment. A woman with vitamin D deficiency is more likely to face pregnancy-induced hypertension, lower birth weight, and gestational diabetes. Ensure that you take ample sunlight and strive for food like fatty fish (tuna, mackerel, salmon), egg yolk, cheese, and other vitamin D fortified food like orange juice, soy milk, and cereals, etc.
Gender specific supplements to add in your routine
Along with a balanced diet, supplements are also important for the success of IVF treatment. Supplements are a must for both female and male partners. Women need supplements for vitamins A, B, C, and E. Zinc, magnesium, iron, and folic acid provide great help in fertilization and implant processes. These also help in preventing neural tube defects. Women should also take enough fatty acids to keep FSH under control and provide nourishment for eggs. Men should also take antioxidants with these vitamins and supplements. These reduce the chances of sperm damage and ensure normal sperm production, sperm count and motility. Coenzyme Q10 improves blood flow and increases the chances of fertilization.
Don’t ignore the male. Optimize sperm health
"Malefactor influence nearly two-third of infertility cases.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh
Many a time people misunderstood the IVF treatment as a procedure that is done with the female partner only. However, the contribution of the male partner is vital. Almost two-thirds of the couples who choose IVF could not normally conceive due to male infertility. Common problems related to sperm production are about the quantity, movement, and shape. These problems arise usually due to excess of alcohol, tobacco or other drugs, high temperature in a hot bath, and excessive workout. Men should also take a healthy and balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants. Your doctors may also prescribe supplements for your male partner. Maintaining a healthy body weight is also important for treatment. You should do moderate exercise regularly. You should undertake the semen analysis before going for the IVF treatment. This would help you and your doctor to identify and understand the cause of male infertility and take the necessary steps to address these issues and obtain a successful outcome of the treatment.You can get an infertility examination to know where you stand on your fertility journey.
Egg donation program
“Egg donation can increase the chances of success of IVF treatment by more than 42 percent.” – Dr. Shilpa Gupta
Egg donation programs are a boon to the parents who want to take up IVF treatment but are constrained by the budget.The process involves taking high quality fertile and healthy eggs from a female done of age between 21 to 29 years, The donors have to go through a well defined and strict screening process to ensure that the practice gives fruitful results.The donor needs to have a healthy lifestyle,good educational background,right weight and height ratios and willing to undergo all medical and background screening processes.It needs to be ensured that the center you are availing the egg donation program follows guidelines provided by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) . Egg received from the young female are fertilized with the sperm of the husband and the resulting embryo is then transferred to the womb of the recipient women
Travel for IVF
“The overall cost of the treatment in India including travel cost is nearly one third of the treatment costs in other countries.” – Dr. Jagatjeet Singh
Should I travel to a different country for IVF treatment? If you are looking for excellent treatment at the minimum possible cost, you should. The cost of IVF treatment is high and is extremely subjective. It depends on your age, fertility history, duration of the marriage and the location. Different countries offer treatment at greatly varying prices. The cost of the treatment in the US is $19,200 whereas it is much lower in other countries. In Malaysia, it is $4,500 and in Thailand, it is $7500. Cost of IVF treatment in India is just ₹51000 which approximately $700,you can get the world-class treatment done. Lesser cost does not always mean poor quality. This variation in cost is based on the cost of living in the country and the burden on the doctors. You also get world-class facilities and internationally trained doctors supporting you 24/7. Clinics also provide support for the visa, travel, and Forex exchange. We provide high-quality treatment with excellent success-rate at the most reasonable pricing.
ivf clinic in india
Check your insurance
Fertility treatments are not considered medically necessary so insurance companies and they do not usually cover them. But if you have a certain condition like endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, etc. that cause infertility, you may be able to get the insurance to pay for the treatment.
If you are still unable to get your insurance to cover it, see if your company offers some kind of employee benefit that allows you to use part of your pre-taxed income for medical uses that insurance provider won’t cover.
How to pay for IVF procedures
Among the top 10 IVF centers in Delhi Baby Joy IVF clinic allows you to pay through various payment options. You can make the payment online which speeds up and simplifies the procedure. We also allow you to pay in installments. Our costing and payment are highly transparent. We provide “World-class Yet Economical” IVF Fertility Treatment in Delhi.
Additional Offers Only for This Week on Cost of IVF in Delhi at Baby Joy
  • Spl. Discounted IVF Packages.
  • Easy EMIs available; Payment can be made in parts.
  • Register nw to avail cheap IVF Price, IVF Cost in Delhi & Start treatment later.
  • Your age, years of marriage & fertility history will help us guide you better on overall IVF Cost, Cost of IVF.
  • No Hidden Charges; No Expensive Tests; Transparent IVF Pricing.
  • Customized Packages available.
  • Money Back Guarantee
Watch - How to select an IVF centre
Smoking and Alcohol detox
Both smoking and alcohol reduce the success rate of IVF treatment. Smoking in men can lead to low sperm count and poor sperm quality causing miscarriage. Women can also face miscarriage due to smoking as it ages the eggs and depletes the uterus lining. Taking alcohol more than ten units a week also decreases the chances of successful IVF treatment.
Relaxation
Many studies have proved that stress adversely affects the results of IVF treatment. It messes up with your cycle timing and can reduce sperm count in males. Cortisol and other hormones secreted due to stress interfere with the implantation process. It may also lead to miscarriage. You can opt for activities like light yoga, meditation, spa, etc for relaxation. You should talk to your doctor and your partner about your apprehensions. Consult a professional counselor if needed.
Acupuncture
Acupuncture is a science that treats various health conditions by putting tiny needles precisely in your body. Presently it is one of the most preferred alternative treatments. Acupuncture is highly effective in managing stress. It enhances the blood flow to the reproductive organs and improves their function. Taking acupuncture sessions for three months before the embryo transfer can dramatically increase the chances of successful treatment.
All the couples who are commencing their journey of IVF may initially find it challenging and demanding. Although it is not completely untrue, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic like the baby joy IVF can make it safe and smooth. Our doctors compassionately discuss the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. We provide personalized care to all our patients and provide them both medical and psychological support.
Best wishes from Baby Joy If you are commencing their journey of IVF and find it challenging and demanding, you are not alone. Although the fear is not completely unjustified, a little research, precautions, and teaming with an excellent doctor and fertility clinic can make it safe and smooth. Find the best IVF doctor who compassionately discusses the details of infertility and the procedure to be followed. Personalized care and world-class medical and psychological support can ensure your success through the journey of IVF.
We understand, there cannot be a stronger human emotion than the desire ‘to have Your Little One!’ “Baby Joy” is our endeavour to be part of your journey towards parenthood.
It is our VISION to set benchmarks in the field of Fertility management globally, through cutting edge technology, most advanced treatment protocols, & a highly acclaimed team of doctors, embryologists & support staff.
It is our MISSION to achieve high success rates at lowest cost, through highly customised fertility care, internationally accepted protocols & best global practices. We strongly believe in bringing transparency & honesty to Fertility care in India. We carry out egg donation & surrogacy through our sister concern WSC. This makes Baby Joy a comprehensive Fertility Centre providing 360 degree fertility solutions under 1 roof. We are one of the few recognised professionally run healthcare centres in India. Baby Joy offers comprehensive Infertility, Surrogacy and Test Tube Baby Solutions in India
At Baby Joy, we strive to ‘touch your lives’ by helping you ‘create life!’
Hoping to transform your dreams into reality, your desires into accomplishments & your Hope into Joy !
Source URL:- https://www.babyjoyivf.com/13-ways-to-maximise-your-ivf-success-minimise-your-ivf-cost/
submitted by babyjoy1 to u/babyjoy1 [link] [comments]

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023

Acute Growth of Algorithm Trading Market Opportunity Assessments 2019-2023
Algorithm Trading Market
Research report comes up with the size of the global Algorithm Trading Market for the base year 2019 and the forecast between 2019 and 2023. Market value has been estimated considering the application and regional segments, market share, and size, while the forecast for each product type and application segment has been provided for the global and local markets.
The Algorithm Trading report offers detailed profiles of the key players to bring out a clear view of the competitive landscape of the Algorithm Trading Outlook. It also comprehends market new product analysis, financial overview, strategies and marketing trends.
Major Manufacturer Detail: Thomson Reuters, 63 moons, InfoReach, Argo SE, MetaQuotes Software, Automated Trading SoftTech, Tethys, Trading Technologies, Tata Consulting Services, Vela, Virtu Financial, Symphony Fintech, Kuberre Systems, iRageCapital, QuantCore Capital Management
Get a Free PDF Sample Copy! Click Here: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/sample-request/205792/
The report reckons a complete view of the world Algorithm Trading market by classifying it in terms of application and region. These segments are examined by current and future trends. Regional segmentation incorporates current and future demand for them in North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East. The report collectively covers specific application segments of the market in each region.
Types of Algorithm Trading covered are: Forex Algorithm Trading, Stock Algorithm Trading, Fund Algorithm Trading, Bond Algorithm Trading, Cryptographic Algorithm Trading
Applications of Algorithm Trading covered are: large Enterprise, SME
Use Corporate ID to avail Discount on this Algorithm Trading Market Report report: https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/discount-request/205792/
Regional Analysis For Algorithm Trading Market
North America (The United States, Canada, and Mexico) Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia, and Italy) Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, and Southeast Asia) South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.) The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa)
Table of Contents:
Study Coverage: It includes key manufacturers covered, key market segments, the scope of products offered in the global Algorithm Trading market, years considered, and study objectives. Additionally, it touches the segmentation study provided in the report on the basis of the type of product and application. Executive summary: It gives a summary of key studies, market growth rate, competitive landscape, market drivers, trends, and issues, and macroscopic indicators. Production by Region: Here, the report provides information related to import and export, production, revenue, and key players of all regional markets studied. Profile of Manufacturers: Each player profiled in this section is studied on the basis of SWOT analysis, their products, production, value, capacity, and other vital factors.
Reasons to buy:
• In-depth analysis of the market on the global and regional level. • Major changes in market dynamics and competitive landscape. • Segmentation on the basis of type, application, geography, and others. • Historical and future market research in terms of size, share, growth, volume & sales. • Major changes and assessment in market dynamics & developments. • Industry size & share analysis with industry growth and trends. • Emerging key segments and regions. • Key business strategies by major market players and their key methods. • The research report covers size, share, trends and growth analysis of the Algorithm Trading Market on the global and regional level.
Get Full Report Description, TOC, Table of Figures, Chart, etc. @ https://www.acquiremarketresearch.com/industry-reports/algorithm-trading-market/205792/
In conclusion, the Algorithm Trading Market report is a reliable source for accessing the Market data that will exponentially accelerate your business. The report provides the principle locale, economic scenarios with the item value, benefit, supply, limit, generation, request, Market development rate, and figure and so on. Besides, the report presents a new task SWOT analysis, speculation attainability investigation, and venture return investigation.
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ENCRYBIT PLATFORM: TAKING CRYPTOCURRENCIES TRADING TO THE NEXT LEVEL!

ENCRYBIT PLATFORM: TAKING CRYPTOCURRENCIES TRADING TO THE NEXT LEVEL!
https://preview.redd.it/eexoxpa89m121.jpg?width=1285&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=f56e4cefb2216de43dc6a5a40c140a4606387b6c

INTRODUCTION

Blockchains and cryptocurrencies were envisioned as community-oriented open-source initiatives where the participants want to have the opportunity to make useful suggestions for the way forward of cryptocurrency exchanges and blockchain at large. This has held true with the exception of dev teams that still have a significant say in the project. Often times blockchains have a leader that everyone believes in and follows, limiting the effects of the members to take part in its management when it comes to exchanges, however, it is not that big of a deal, but ENCRYBIT is a revolution that has come to stay for the betterment of the ecosystem. ENCRYBIT was born out of a shared vision to develop a more efficient global financial system.
https://preview.redd.it/j9ygqvmc9m121.jpg?width=780&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2ed895da2f833760e9c1e6378c523e444eb2e29a

The flexibility of trading in multiple cryptocurrencies where traders have say on the entire system is what interests the team members to have come up with this great idea of ENCRYBIT, but they were fed up with the inefficiencies of decentralized exchanges where users of the platform has no or little contribution to the development and progress of the platform, this led the Research team at ENCRYBIT to had conducted an online survey across many crypto traders around the world to know and be ascertain on what need urgent improvement where exchanges are concerned in this blockchain ecosystem. This means team isn’t taking decisions on their own, but traders are carried along in the development of ENCRYBIT cryptocurrency trading platform.
Its all about a modern cryptocurrency exchange, designed considering what community have asked in our recent survey and traders review.
The research team at Encrybit did very well to carry out survey which is viewed as the best way to gather opinions from traders from all over the world by conducting an online survey and below is the result gotten from the surveys that were carried out:
The security concern is still quite spread between the traders, it's quite obvious since the major hacks and scams happened in regards of exchanges, the fear of losing your funds is always there when you keep them on a trading platform. Participants responses and opinions in diagram;
https://preview.redd.it/t06kwiyf9m121.jpg?width=766&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=39a3b656fc4dd92628d6150cebf88506a9251395

Encrybit can assure traders that its platform will do its best to prevent those consequences.
In the context of this article, Encrybit being an “All You Need, All in One Page” means that Encrybit and its platform want to solve those issues, trying to give users all the tools they need, all in one single page when you need them and extremely easy to use, no switching tabs and no need of third-party platforms. It doesn't matter you're trading for fun or for work, all the trader categories will be given the chance to trade in a more relaxed and engaging way.
https://preview.redd.it/6hgm3bih9m121.jpg?width=724&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4c39b39bc38d14bfc9dec9296a115a7dcd99035c

Encrybit will provide general security to users in the following ways:
Two Factor Authentication Wallet Address Whitelisting Withdrawal Authentication Device Authentication IP Whitelisting Multi Signature Wallet Anti-Phishing Aler
Encrybit is backed up by M-Connect Solutions, a software development agency established in the year 2009. It is a software development company having expertise in banking and trading software. It has specific clients (trading software development companies) from Germany, USA, and India. They know the ins-outs of the forex exchange functionalities. They've technology, qualified resources (In-house), and experience to support the development and working of a revolutionary cryptocurrency exchange.

ROADMAP

By definition, Roadmap is a plan or strategy intended to achieve a particular goal. That is to say the ENCRYBIT Roadmap is step-by-step means by which the mission of the project is to be fully achieved.
Below is a pictorial representation of the ENCRYBIT Roadmap:
https://preview.redd.it/0vixyq9m9m121.jpg?width=936&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=12c0a4b8ea07ae495ca5d7c5b73a56db25da934b
https://preview.redd.it/eh3miuin9m121.jpg?width=951&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6486737df7f240e53cded5b0acf57094a84b5934
https://preview.redd.it/selifh7p9m121.jpg?width=855&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=64b6680f48f4dc4521eaa9438accaa356251eea0

https://preview.redd.it/s1y3hzur9m121.jpg?width=873&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=aaf17840b70a5c0df7546d824fbd0adedecfb491
The Encrybit project has very ambitious plans to conquer the market. Don't miss your chance to be a part of this project!
Get connected anytime with the Project using the links below for more information, updates and participation:
WEBSITE: https://encrybit.io/
WHITEPAPER: https://encrybit.io/pdf/encrybit-wp-v1.pdf
LITEPAPER: https://encrybit.io/pdf/litepaper.pdf
TWITTER: https://twitter.com/enbofficial
FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/encrybitofficial/

WRITER'S DETAILS
BitcoinTalk Username: cryptoblezin
BitcoinTalk Profile URL: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2178561;sa=summary
ETH Address: 0xC89b8Dd7e3E137DB108575EeAe301E52b6C72d9F
submitted by blessingsdrop to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]

ITALIAN InziderX Whitepaper Translation

ITALIAN InziderX Whitepaper Translation

https://preview.redd.it/gp2ksmvyh3m11.png?width=1446&format=png&auto=webp&s=3c75b22ae8854cda5a5c5411ddec39aae124cdbd

Sommario

Satoshi Nakamoto; il nome stesso sembra uno pseudonimo. Fino a quando la sua identità rimarrà sconosciuta, sarà impossibile sapere quali fossero le sue reali intenzioni quando rese disponibile al pubblico il codice Bitcoin nel 2009 - basato su due tecnologie già esistenti al momento: hascash e PGP ma con l'aggiunta di una soluzione geniale al problema della doppia spesa. Il messaggio incluso nel blocco di genesi potrebbe essere un indizio: "The Times 3 gennaio 2009 Cancelliere in vista del secondo salvataggio per le banche". Ha raggiunto il suo obiettivo?


Introduzione

l'impero è in fiamme, il nuovo gioco in città è l'"asset digitale". Dopo la quotazione del future XBT, l'annuncio era ufficiale. Nonostante il biasimo per questo nuovo asset immateriale, i grandi protagonisti del "vecchio" mercato si stanno silenziosamente posizionando su quello nuovo.

Il 26 Febbraio 2018, Bloomberg ha pubblicato un articolo sostenendo che Circle Financial Ltd, supportata finanziariamente dalla più grande banca di investimento, Goldman Sach, aveva acquisito l'exchange Poloniex per $ 400 milioni USD.

La banca JPMorgan, il cui famoso direttore Jamie Dimon è noto per aver ripetutamente screditato chi investe in Bitcoin e ha definito questa tecnologia una frode, ha inventato di recente il proprio sistema di transazioni decentralizzate denominato Quorum - una copia modificata del codice Ethereum.

Blythe Master, una persona importante nel mondo degli investimenti, è diventata CEO di Digital Asset Holding LLC nel 2015, una società di tecnologia finanziaria aperta nel 2014 che sta sviluppando tecnologie basate su blockchain per l'intero settore degli investimenti, servizi finanziari oltre ad essere fornitori di infrastrutture per il mercato, exchanges e banche.

Ripple e il suo ricco direttore, già si presentano come il Bitcoin per le banche.

Per un occhio attento, gli esempi non mancano e tutto ciò che serve è leggere tra le righe per sapere chi sarà il prossimo.

Dopo il crollo del mercato immobiliare del 2008 e il salvataggio delle banche da parte della FED, l'indice Dow Jones è cresciuto di oltre il 300% dal suo minimo di 6626 nel 2008 a 26 667 nel 2018. L'Heng Seng del 200% da 10 600 a 33 642, il DAX del 125% da 3458 a 7781 ed il Nikkei del 245% da 6988 a 24171. Questi incrementi esponenziali sono stati finanziati da fondi pubblici, ma principalmente dalla diminuzione del valore delle valute mondiali, detto quantitative
easing.

Il dollaro USD, come il Denarius al tempo dei Romani, si sta indebolendo. In realtà, tutte le valute mondiali hanno solo il 5% del potere d'acquisto di 100 anni fa, se non meno. Ma quando il prezzo delle valute estere non diminuisce drasticamente perché tutti i paesi fanno lo stesso gioco, è difficile sapere il suo reale potere d'acquisto.

La guerra valutaria è reale e gli effetti collaterali sono disastrosi. In India, il governo aveva informato la popolazione solo 4 ore prima dell'eliminazione di banconote da 500 e 1000 rupie che rappresentano l'80% delle proprie emissioni. Lasciando la sua popolazione, il 95% dei quali usa banconote, in un vicolo cieco.

Dopo aver gonfiato e sgonfiato tutto, il denaro investito nel mercato valutario e i fondi del mercato azionario sono alla ricerca di un nuovo gioco; la vecchia terra è bruciata, vuota. In effetti, la correzione del 70% del prezzo BTC nel gennaio 2018 è un eccellente livello di acquisto a lungo termine e non vi è più motivo di attendere un momento migliore per trasferire il valore. Crediamo fosse ricercato !

All'inizio del 2017, la capitalizzazione degli asset digitali era più o meno $ 27 miliardi USD ed a metà anno di $ 180 miliardi USD. Nel 2018, ora è di circa $ 800 miliardi USD e più di 325.000 transazioni sono processate quotidianamente sulla blockchain Bitcoin.

Il volume giornaliero delle transazioni sul New York Exchange è di circa $ 75 milioni, il volume del mercato dei cambi Forex è di circa $ 4,5 miliardi USD.

Se consideriamo che parte del volume dei mercati tradizionali sarà gradualmente trasferita a questo nuovo mercato, il suo sviluppo è appena iniziato. E per quelli che credono che un crollo del mercato azionario sia imminente, questa affermazione ha ancora più senso.


Analisi Mercato

Gli ultimi progressi nella tecnologia blockchain sono veramente interessanti. Gli sviluppatori che indossano t-shirt con unicorni, lama e dischi volanti ci hanno gentilmente dato gli smart contract.

https://preview.redd.it/wyipyuh0i3m11.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d8c8c1e1fcd58d3ead578e28804451288917ade4


Diversi atomic swap tra blockchain sono già stati fatti senza l'intervento di terzi e il network Lightning è già in uso.
Tutti ne parlano ma siamo ancora senza una soluzione affidabile per negoziare attivamente o algoritmicamente gli asset digitali in un ambiente sicuro e con strumenti professionali.

La prossima rivoluzione sarà morale e la tecnologia blockchain ci darà un nuovo strumento per andare verso questa realtà. Satoshi è stato così gentile da risolvere il problema della doppia spesa, gli smart contract consentono l'esecuzione consensuale senza l'intervento di terzi, gli atomic swaps consentono il trasferimento di valore tra diverse blockchain e il Network Lightning trasferimenti istantanei a basso costo.

Il passo successivo è un exchage liquido e decentralizzato con smart contract e in grado di eseguire atomic swap e migliaia di transazioni al secondo senza problemi. Un'analisi della situazione rivela i difetti del sistema di scambi centralizzato attuale.

In un certo senso, lo scambio di asset digitali centralizzato è già finito, è solo una questione di apparenza se non di tempo. Dati i problemi del passato e la loro incapacità di competere con ciò che sta arrivando, non hanno futuro.
Dobbiamo comunque dare loro credito perché dal 2009 ad oggi il mercato emergente degli asset digitali è stato uno dei più rischiosi. Rischioso per l'utente ma anche per gli exchage stessi: dal punto di vista legislativo, tecnologico e finanziario. Gli imprenditori di questi exchagne hanno dato agli utenti il primo accesso a questo mercato. Dobbiamo essergliene grati.

Sono state create belle piattaforme di trading che forniscono liquidità e buoni spread Bid / Ask oltre a strumenti vanzati come il margine di trading e il margine di finanziamento. Sfortunatamente, la soluzione attualmente in essere non soddisfa le aspettative di una clientela più esperta, se non addirittura l'utente inesperto.

Chi non ha visto il valore del suo account trading ridotto di un terzo, se non scomparso del tutto, dopo che un exchange centralizzato fosse "vittima di un hacker". Una nuova settimana, un nuovo hack in modo sempre più impressionante.
Oggettivamente, la sicurezza degli exchage centralizzati di asset digitali è indubitabilmente inadeguata.

Cosa pensare dei limiti di prelievo giornalieri, altrimenti viene chiesto di pagare le imposte sul reddito al ritiro dei valori sull'exchange, senza una valutazione obiettiva dei guadagni/perdite, altrimenti subire il rifiuto del prelievo. Entro il 2018, tutti gli scambi con sede negli Stati Uniti saranno diventati obsoleti.

L'elenco dellesituazioni inaccettabili è esaustivo e sconcerta il negoziatore più informato.
-Hack settimanali di importo sempre più elevato
- Un exchange popolare chiuso per 72 ore in un mercato attivo 24/24h
- Verifiche di identità senza risposta per più di 3 mesi dopo la richiesta di apertura di un account
- Errori di prelievo automatici nel conto bancario degli utenti che causano situazioni
difficili
- La richiesta di depositi iniziali astronomici
- Troppa leva nei prodotti CFD o nessuna leva per lo spot.
- Quotazioni bloccate, movimenti di prezzo irregolari che attivano gli ordini di stop per poi tornare al prezzo iniziale

Negoziare su questi exchange centralizzati sta mettendo gli utenti in una posizione di ostaggio. Per non citare il loro potere tirannico di quotare, cancellare o negare un asset digitale in modo puramente arbitrario - Bitshares.

E nonostante il loro tentativo di rendere la loro piattaforma di facile utilizzo, la maggior parte di questi exchange non include gli strumenti necessari per la negoziazione attiva o algoritmica.

La presentazione di grafici e strumenti di analisi è per lo più di scarsa qualità, i tipi di ordini sono insufficienti e la loro presentazione confusa. Queste piattaforme sono in effetti la replica amatoriale di strumenti professionali.

Nel migliore dei mondi possibili, uno exchage decentrato risolve questo gap di sicurezza che danneggia gli exchage centralizzati.

Alcune iniziative hanno già mostrato risultati interessanti. Le piattaforme exchange decentralizzate di Bisc, Bitshares e Komodo sono esempi eccellenti.

Bisc consente l'acquisto di asset digitali tramite bonifico bancario, Bitshares può eseguire 100.000 transazioni al secondo (più di Visa e Mastercard combinate) e Komodo consente l'atomic swap - il trasferimento di valori tra diverse blockchain.

Senza nominare le altre caratteristiche ingegnose di queste piattaforme, esse sono un secondo, non trascurabile passo verso un sistema exchange di asset digitali sicuro che sia efficiente e affidabile per i suoi utenti.

Cosa manca se tutti i pezzi del puzzle sono a posto? In effetti, questi exchange decentralizzati hanno una grande debolezza: la loro liquidità.

Se ci si sofferma a studiare questi exchange, questo fatto diventa semplicemente ovvio. Non è realmente possibile negoziare attivamente il BTC/USD con uno spread Bid/Ask di $ 200 altrimenti uno "slippage" di oltre il 4% sul prezzo di entrata a causa della mancanza di volume.

Non si discute su questo punto e l'ultima ICO di exchange decentralizzati non spiega come possano risolvere questo grave problema. È come l'elefante in una stanza.

Questo per non parlare della loro scelta commerciale di offrire a tutti l'opportunità di creare il proprio token sulla propria piattaforma in meno di 5 minuti. Questo approccio peggiora solo la situazione di mancanza di liquidità diminuendo l'elenco degli asset negoziabili presentate agli utenti. Un vero "gratis per tutti".

Ecco perché altre notevoli soluzioni di exchage decentralizzati presentate sotto il modello di token ERC20 non sono davvero interessanti, anche con un volume di scambi rispettabile. Inoltre, è praticamente impossibile valutare il valore di un asset quando la coppia è stabilita con un token della "casa".

E' preferibile un piccolo gruppo di asset digitali "blue chips" per il trading attivo o automatico.

Sfortunatamente, nonostante l'innegabile miglioramento della sicurezza, le soluzioni di exchange decentralizzate non hanno ancora soddisfatto i bisogni dei trader attivi e algoritmici.

Tentatare di fare trading attivo o algoritmica nel mercato dei beni digitali è diventata un'esperienza dolorosa e rischiosa. E la volatilità non è la causa principale di questo rischio.

Gli exchange centralizzati non sono più una soluzione e gli exchage decentralizzati non soddisfano le reali esigenze dei negoziatori.

Che opzioni abbiamo?!

Il concetto di exchange ideale è chiaro, ma non è stato ancora applicato. Questo è comprensibile perché è stato necessario attendere fino a quando ogni parte è pensata con calma, ingegnosamente, inventata.

Il nostro riconoscimento per i suoi sviluppatori è illimitato.

Nonostante l'apertura a concetti innovativi di numerosi exchange decentralizzati , il mondo degli asset digitali non ha ancora infrastrutture di base per stabilire i pilastri del mercato di domani. Educazione di massa, creazione di un wallet facile, sicurezza, liquidità e rapidità nei cambiamenti: c'è ancora molto da fare.

InziderX farà la sua parte fornendo ai trader attivi e algoritmici un exchange sicuro che combina strumenti avanzati di negoziazione con le ultime tecnologie.


La Nostra Visione

La soluzione che il nostro team ha in programma di mettere in preatica è l'exchange InziderX. La nostra missione è creare un exchange decentralizzato che sia facile da usare per i principianti, ma principalmente per i trader attivi e algoritmici con tutte le giuste condizioni per l'esecuzione della loro strategia.

Un exchange decentralizzato, basato sul portafoglio (Dapp), che è liquido e la cui piattaforma di analisi grafica include tutti gli strumenti più avanzati nel suo ambito.

In realtà, InziderX vuole diventare la scelta sensata se non l'unica opzione logica per i negoziatori d'elite e algoritmici. Il nostro obiettivo sarà sempre la qualità degli strumenti disponibili, l'esecuzione e la liquidità degli ordini.

È giunto il momento di un cambiamento, i trader di asset digitali hanno avuto troppe delusioni per rimanere ostaggio di exchange centralizzati hackerati e cambiamenti arbitrari nella legislazione del governo.

InziderX vuole essere lo scambio OTC in cui negoziamo tra gli addetti ai lavori, in modo anonimo.

https://inziderx.io/docs/InziderX.io-Whitepaper-ITA.pdf

#ico #exchange #inziderx #bitcoin #cryptocurrency
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